Premature neonates born before 32 weeks of pregnancy are more likely to develop respiratory disorders because their lungs are unable to produce enough surfactant, a foamy substance that maintains the lungs completely extended. Respiratory problems are the most prevalent reason for new-born infants being admitted to the neonatal critical care unit. Despite advances in neonatal critical care, respiratory problems continue to be a leading cause of new-born mortality and morbidity. Many changes in respiratory regulation and hemodynamic state must occur as neonates migrate from an in utero to an exterior environment in order for the baby to adapt properly. Some babies, however, may not be able to make the transition and will require resuscitation and additional treatment. Changes in cardiac physiology can also be disrupted, leading to problems like periodic breathing or prematurity apnoea in preterm new-borns.