Many people regard vision to be the most significant of the five senses. A child's quality of life can be severely impacted by the loss of vision. Newborn infants might be affected by a variety of inherited and acquired eye problems. A considerable number of these disorders have symptoms that can be detected during a routine eye check-up. A newborn eye examination is an important aspect of the newborn evaluation. Many ocular problems in newborn infants can be detected by carefully observing the infant's visual behaviour and examining the ocular structures and checking the red reflex using a direct ophthalmoscope. Early detection and intervention rely heavily on a thorough history and neonatal assessment. Prior education and awareness of specific indicators of various ocular illnesses are essential components for achieving a positive outcome early on.