Neonatologists are paediatric experts who specialise in the care of newborn newborns and premature babies. In the neonatal intensive care unit, a neonatologist provides comprehensive treatment to critically ill infants while also supervising the care of healthy newborns on the postnatal ward. From the term infant on the postoperative ward with feeding concerns to the sick, frail, extremely preterm newborn with many complications, the range of clinical circumstances and care required is broad. In the antenatal and postnatal setting, neonatologists frequently have tough conversations with families concerning care, treatment, prognosis, and, potentially, palliative care. Many of these debates revolve around ethical and medicolegal knowledge and its application. Neonatal-perinatal medicine is a paediatric specialisation that deals with the treatment of critically ill newborns and premature babies.