Emergency situations involving newborns are not rare. They can appear at the time of birth, during the post-partum period in the hospital, or at home within a few weeks of discharge. They pose substantial diagnostic and treatment issues to clinicians in all cases, and must be handled seriously. It might be challenging to evaluate newborns who have suffered head trauma in an emergency situation. A baby who has suffered non-accidental head trauma may have very minor historical findings and no physical exam findings. The neonatal population (birth to one month of age) presents a unique and challenging diagnostic and treatment challenge in the emergency department, and a systematic strategy is necessary to provide early diagnosis and subsequent therapy in the situation of a possibly unwell neonate.