The brain of a newborn is considerably different from that of a youngster or an adult. Neonatal neurology and neurocritical care are concerned with the development of these severely ill babies, as well as the prevention and management of brain injuries. In the NICU and beyond, neonatal neurologists monitor, assess, and treat neonates. Due to research and technology advancements, practises in this specialised field have evolved significantly during the last two decades. A newborn baby may experience a range of neurological issues as a result of abnormalities affecting his brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, or muscles. There are around 600 neurological disorders that can arise in a person's lifetime, although babies have fewer neurological disorders. These conditions might be present at birth or develop soon afterward. The first month after conception lays the groundwork for the baby's brain development. During pregnancy and after birth, the brain continues to develop. During this time, any disruption or injury to the brain's development can result in neurological issues. These problems can arise for a variety of causes.